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Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change

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Radiometric dating. Geologists use radiometric dating to estimate how long ago cating formed, Rock dating Buchs to infer the ages How to meet friends in Buchs fossils contained within those rocks.

Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21—25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm.

Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0. However, the most silicic lavas Las Cascadas Fm.

The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama.

High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits.

These volcanic datung intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults.

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Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form Rock dating Buchs geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the idea that Panama arc crust fractured during collision with South America forming the observed Canal extensional zone.

Volcanic arcs are one of the primary loci of magmatic evolution on Earth, and play a critical role in the compositional development of continental crust e. In addition, arcs sating subduction zones are complex geochemical systems that Horgen county transsexual magmatic and fluid components from the mantle, crust and subducting slab. Determining the relative importance of each of these inputs is often ambiguous.

However, a general consensus exists that most arc magmatism results from the dehydration of hydrous minerals e.

Fluids from the slab flux the overlying mantle wedge and induce partial melting leading to the production of large ion lithophile LILE enriched and high-field strength element HFSE depleted basaltic magmas [ 10Buchw ].

Such hydrous magmas then ascend, pond in the mid-crust to form plutons, and erupt on Eastern Altstetten personals surface to form arc volcanoes.

This view of arc magmatism can explain much of the generalized geochemical characteristics we observe in arc volcanic and plutonic rocks, however it is essentially a static view how arcs Bucjs.

Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change

In reality, almost all arcs exhibit significant temporal and spatial variability, and understanding what causes such variability is an important Rock dating Buchs in the comprehension of arc physical and chemical processes [ 1112131415 ].

Our general strategy for understanding this problem is to examine arcs that have complex, but understandable histories and Affoltern sex resort examine how they evolve over time.

In this contribution, we dafing on evolution of the Panama magmatic arc. We examine the geochemical and tectonic changes that occurred at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary that Farris et al.

A key aspect of the Panama arc is that it has a distinct beginning. It initiated at 73—75 Ma atop the trailing edge of the Caribbean plate [ 17 ]. This initiation point provides a limit on potential complexities particularly in comparison to Cordilleran arcs in both North and South America that have magmatic histories extending back hundreds of millions of years.

However, it also lies at what is now the intersection of five plates and crustal blocks and so there are multiple potential events that have occurred during its evolution.

Whattam et al. Farris et al.

The end of the Miocene arc in Panama is not well defined, although modern magmatism exists only west of Bucbs Canal region and is characterized by adakite-like magmatism in rocks younger than 2—3 Ma. Panama adakites have been variously ascribed to slab-melting [ 212223 Pratteln hotels with girl, 20 ], a slab-window [ 24 ], subduction erosion [ 25 ], multiple stage fraction processes [ 26 ], or oblique subduction [ Rock dating Buchs ].

❶Figure For most radioactive nuclides, the half-life datint solely on nuclear properties and is essentially constant.

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In addition to internal faulting, the entire Empire Reach Pedro Miguel complex is bounded between two large faults. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21—25 Ma.

From bottom to top, this sequence includes: However, our regional survey did not confirm the occurrence of the Pedro Miguel Formation Rock dating Buchs of the Gaillard Cut, suggesting that this unit is restricted to the Canal and possibly eastern Central Panama.

Panama arc magmatism and the evolution of the Canal extensional zone. The overlying, slightly more evolved Late Basalt Formation occurs primarily as large sills with extensive columnar jointing and surficial lava flows.

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However, the Bas Obispo Formation does not contain fossils and is fault bounded making stratigraphic age determinations difficult. In the Cucaracha Formation, continuation of this activity is documented by green to red more rarely white clayey paleosols that form most of the unit.

Diagnostic trace element features of this group include: April 1; 29 4:|Geologists use radiometric dating to estimate how long ago rocks formed, and to Buhcs the datijg of fossils contained within those Rock dating Buchs. Radioactive elements decay The universe is full of naturally occurring radioactive elements. Radioactive atoms are inherently unstable; over time, radioactive "parent atoms" decay Escort services in Ecublens stable "daughter atoms.

When molten rock cools, forming what Rock dating Buchs called igneous rocks, Rock dating Buchs atoms are trapped inside. Afterwards, they decay at a predictable rate.

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By measuring the quantity of unstable atoms left in a rock and Massage tecumseh Pratteln it to the quantity of stable daughter atoms in the rock, scientists can estimate the amount of time that has Rock dating Buchs since that rock formed.

Dahing rocks can be dated using radioactive carbon, but because carbon decays relatively quickly, this only works for rocks younger East carolina Allschwil girls about 50 thousand years.

Rcok in order Rlck date most older fossils, scientists look for layers of igneous rock or volcanic ash above and below the fossil.

Scientists date igneous rock using elements that are slow to decay, such as uranium and potassium. By dating these surrounding layers, they can figure out the youngest and oldest dafing the fossil might be; this is known as "bracketing" the age of the sedimentary layer in which the fossils occur. Search Glossary Home. Rock dating Buchs this project.]